The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the colon/rectum or to other parts of the body is called staging. Treatment can vary based on what stage you’re diagnosed at. The below chart provides an overview.
|STAGE||SURGERY||CHEMOTHERAPY / BIOLOGICS||RADIATION||INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY|
|Stage II||Yes||Yes, for rectal and high risk colon cancers. FOLFOX (5-FU/Leucovorin/Oxaliplatin) or CapeOx (Capecitabine/Oxaliplatin)||Yes, for rectal cancer. Given in tandem with 5-FU or Xeloda||No|
|Stage III||Yes||FOLFOX or CapeOx||Yes, for rectal cancer. Given in tandem with 5-FU or Xeloda||No|
|Stage IV||Yes, if the tumor is obstructive or blocking the bowel. Some patients become surgical candidates for liver, lung or peritoneal surgery. Usually not, if the tumor is not blocking the bowel||FOLFOX, FOLFIRI, Avastin, Erbitux, Vectibix, Zaltrap, Stivarga, Lonsurf, Cyramza||Yes, for rectal cancer and in certain other cases.|
Interventional radiology for liver and lung metastases
|Possibly. Options could be Radio Frequency Ablation (RFA) or chemoembolization|